Nerthus, a universal smart contract platform & blockchain operating system based on DAG

Whitepaper Video Bulletin

Why Nerthus exists?

Now that we have seen the launch of Ethereum and high profile universal projects like EOS, why does Nerthus come into existence? Actually, both Ethereum and EOS, their underlying structure is block+chain. This kind of structure has inherent weaknesses. A decentralized-like action is included in the structure, for example, ‘pack the blocks’. ‘Accounters’ have to put the current transactions together to process and write into the blockchain. As a result, blockchain throughput bottleneck appears. Meanwhile, blockchain throughput depends on the size of blocks. If the block size is smaller than the transactions size needed, a lot of transactions may not be added into the blockchain; however, if the block is oversized, the whole blockchain system and the data size will explode rapidly, and common users can’t run full nodes any more. These problems may result in centralization, which is the core conflict of bitcoin’s blocksize debate. It is the inherent paradox of block+chain structure. Instead, Nerthus’ underlying data structure is consist of unit+DAG and is improved through blockchain. No accounters need to pack the blocks. Without this centralized process, Nerthus will solve all the problems created by traditional block+chain structures radically.

What the founder say about the project


Nerthus is a universal blockchain programming platform based on DAG technology. Meanwhile, it is also a decentralized and distributed blockchain operating system. Nerthus is implemented with Turing-complete programming languages. Users can use it to build and define their own features. They can also develop their apps and blockchain systems as well as issue tokens based on Nerthus.

Three layers of Nerthus

Service Layer
Based on the Core Layer, we introduced the Service Layer for developers develop various apps build on Nerthus.…… Service Layer,Apart from the APIs of the Core Layer, we also implemented a blockchain translation system and a sidechain system into the Service Layer. A blockchain translation system is used for two separate blockchains, for them to read each other and enables free communication; enterprise user-oriented sidechain system can quickly build permissioned blockchains and consortium blockchains based on Nerthus, and connect them to the Nerthus main chain. Also, Nerthus translation system can be used to communicate and exchange with other chains.
Core Layer
The Core Layer of Nerthus enables a universal smart contract programming platform and blockchain operating system based on DAG+unit underlying structure.
Application Layer
The Application Layer is built on top of the Service Layer. It represents various blockchain apps developed on Nerthus …… It represents various blockchain apps developed on Nerthus and by third party developers. Currently, all kinds of blockchain apps, especially wallets, failed to offer a user-friendly experience. Blockchain developers of today are more focused on functions rather than user experience. However, for a technology, a system or an app to be widely adopted, user experience is essential. Nerthus pays close attention to user experience, we borrow experiences from IOS and aim to create standards and norms for Nerthus Application Layer.

Six breakthrough points of Nerthus

More Decentralization

Traditional block+chain structures need a decentralized-like action, which means they need accounters to validate and process transactions, put them in a block and add to the network. However, as mentioned above, Nerthus system used unit+DAG structures without the concept of block. All units are created and released by users. The validation and confirmation of this system should be undertaken by the new unit which referenced the previous unit. Not like traditional block+chain structures, Nerthus doesn’t need centralized actors like accounters to pack transactions. Thus, by contrast, Nerthus is a more decentralized system.

No throughput bottleneck

Traditional block+chain structures require a centralized action—accounters have to pack the transactions into blocks. Thus, the transaction processing capacity is dependent on the following three points: 1. The performance of accounters node machine; 2. The network bandwidth of accounters node; 3. The blocksize. Because of the centralized action, the throughput bottleneck will always exist, no matter it is optimized in any way. As above, the unit+DAG structure of Nerthus system do not need accounters to pack blocks, neither does it has the concept of blocks. Units are created and released by users and validated by other units. Therefore, Nerthus does not have throughput bottleneck.

No blocksize and data explosion issues

For traditional block+chain structures, transactions have to be packed before validation. If the block size is not enough, and transaction volume is rather large, some transactions may not be added into the block immediately. But if the block is oversized, blockchain data may rapidly explode. At that time, PCs can’t run full nodes, only a limited number of people can run full nodes, which will result in centralization. It is the core conflict of bitcoin blocksize debate. As mentioned above, Nerthus removed the concept of block, so it will not be in the same dilemma as traditional block+chain structures have.

Clear and definite end

For traditional block+chain structures, two or more blocks may be simultaneously produced, a fork is here to stay. When a fork happens, traditional blockchains consider the longest chain as the valid one. This kind of mechanism is uncertain, as no one can promise the existence of a concealed longest chain. Through Nerthus witness mechanism, as long as the witness unit released by the witness is validated and confirmed, then it means the finality and no one can deny it.

Optional transaction confirmation speed

The transaction units in Nerthus, as long as validated and confirmed by the witness unit released by the witness, it has the finality. The witness blocks launched by the witness can be divided into five levels: emergency, urgent, fast, normal and slow. Users can choose the confirmation speed of transactions based on their needs.

Outside-chain data connection, validation and consensus rules.



Jonavon is co-founder of Nerthus and founder of Shenzhen Fenglian Tech. He is a senior blockchain researcher. He already applied for various blockchain technology patents for outside-chain connection, validation and consensus.

Benny An

Benny An is co-founder of Nerthus. He is also the executive director of ivyMobi North America Inc and tech director of North America. He is in charge of overseas tech for Confucius Institute Online. He once served as a member of Windows 2000 global expert group, Microsoft Global Authentication solution specialist and Cisco certified engineer.

Jiawen Chen

As a co-founder of Nerthus, Jiawen Chen is a blockchain industrial insider. He joined blockchain sector since 2012, and once involved with ICO and strategic planning, including projects like MAID, ETH, NEO, ASCH, BYTEBALL.


As a trainee of first GBBC, Erica is enthusiastic about blockchain and AI. It is since 2013 did she started to learn blockchain. She is one of the early players in ICO projects like IOTA, BYTEBALL, ZEC, BTS, NEO. She was the business manager of 8btc.

Yu Shuangqi

Yu Shuangqi is a full stack developer. He served as a financial and securities practitioner and a senior Go developer as well as an expert on product development and system O&M. He is now dedicated to becoming a blockchain expert and strives for excellence.

Weijin Zhu

He has 6 years of developing experience, and proficient in C, C++and Go language. He knows well about data structure and algorithm, focuses on blockchain research because of personal interest.

Sen Wu

With 4 years of software developing experience, he deeply understands how to design and develop cross-platform software. He is a fan of intelligent hardware and Internet tech. Also, he is a developer of xy series software.

Zhenwei Yin

Majored in software engineering, he is good at Java, Go and C language. He is skilled in database and algorithm. he knows well about projects like Ethereum and byteball.

Chang Tingting

Chang Tingting is currently a blockchain module designer. She has three years of professional experience as a UI designer who is interested in the blockchain technology and Artificial Intelligence


Elaine is a data analyst who has years of experience in social media operation. Interested in the blockchain technology and cranial nerves, she works to promote blockchain products and research on users’ psychology.

Lixia Liao

Lixia Liao majored in English. She is an on-job postgraduate for human resources. (Overseas study for MBA). Liao is a passionate for the Internet and blockchain tech. Years of experience on projects financing and planning make her an expert in projects management,roadshow,venture contest planning and organizing.

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